step 1), fewer other-gender friends (Hdos), and higher anxiety in mixed-gender situations (H3). Prior studies have not found any consistent moderating effect of student gender on the differences related to single-sex schooling, and we expected the school differences to be similar in boys and girls (Hcuatro). Nevertheless, we included student gender as a potential moderator as most prior studies did [4,13]. Across the two samples, we predicted that differences between single-sex and coeducational school students ple as the school differences may attenuate when all students were exposed to similar mixed-gender environments after graduation (H5). Also, we hypothesized that the potential school difference in mixed-gender anxiety was mediated by gender salience (H6) and mixed-gender friendships (H7).
People was basically recruited out of five local highest universities (that all-women, that every-guys as well as 2 coeducational) based in demographically varied areas in Hong-kong. Players provided Means step one so you’re able to six (7 th so you’re able to twelve th degrees) youngsters with the exception of the newest the-female university, where Function 6 people was excluded due to the school’s arrangement to possess personal exam planning. Surveys were applied by a category teacher when you look at the for every single classification. People done procedures into the created parameters and stated its month-to-month relatives earnings, adult degree and you may many years, numbers of sisters and you may brothers, and you can ethnicity. This research is done in conformity into the suggestions and you will recognition of one’s School of Hong kong Human Lookup Ethics Committee (HKU HREC). Students’ assent and couch potato consent away from moms and dads otherwise guardians was obtained in advance of study range. how to delete heated affairs account The sufferers offered created informed consent according to the Statement from Helsinki.
A total of 2083 students participated in the study (participation rate: 84%). Twenty-four subjects were excluded from analyses due to missing or extreme data (11 coeducational school students did not indicate their gender and 13 students reported extremely unlikely values on demographic variables). The final sample (N = 2059, Mage = years, SD = 2.03) consisted of 589 boys and 376 girls from the two coeducational schools, 416 boys from the all-boys school, and 678 girls from the all-girls school. This sample size had over 99% a priori power to detect small differences (.20 < d < .30) at ? = .05, two-tailed . Participants were mainly Chinese (89%). Among the four participating schools, the all-boys school and one coeducational school were in Band 2, while the all-girls school and the other coeducational school were in Band 3. All participating schools used Chinese as the teaching language. Some schools used spoken Cantonese and some used spoken Mandarin in class, but they used the same written language in formal printed materials. Therefore, the questionnaires were printed in Chinese. Consistent with prior research [3,4,8], participants from single-sex schools had parents with higher education level, t(2042) = -7.157, p < .001, and attended more academically excellent schools, t(2023) = -, p < .001, unequal variances, than did participants from coeducational schools. The average parental education level of the sample (i.e., between junior secondary to senior secondary) was similar to a representative sample of over 9000 students from local high schools, one from each of the 19 districts in Hong Kong . Detailed participant characteristics are presented in Table 1.
Intercourse salience level.
Intercourse salience try measured of the McGuire et al.’s the reason method . That it size has been shown to get of or impacted of the sex structure [twenty-seven,53]. Members was indeed requested provide three short responses every single from these two questions: “Let me know what you’re” and you may “Tell me what you’re not”. They certainly were educated to write down what they you will definitely contemplate quickly. The answers was basically after that coded because the “gender-related” otherwise “non-gender-related”. Desk dos reveals types of so it coding scheme. Answers was in fact earliest coded on their own from the two coders. Inter-rater reliability is high for everyone answers (all the ? > .93). Conflicts was indeed up coming solved by the talks between them programmers. The level of gender-associated solutions over the a few inquiries are summed to suggest sex salience.